Brief (6 1/2
min) Introductory film: "Parent's Journey" This film is a good brief
introduction to JRCC. It includes an explanation of JRC's optional
intensive treatment procedures.
Summary Statement on JRC and the aversives controversy.
Legal basis for JRC's use of Aversives.
Letters and comments
from parents and students.
JRC in a question and answer format.
articles that have recently appeared in blogs. This is an item that
we have been posting on some blogs that have mentioned JRC.
Professional papers by JRC staff members or
Article recently published:
Van Oorsouw, W.M.W.J., Israel,
M.L., von Heyn, R.E., and Duker, P.C.,
"Side Effects of Contingent
Shock Treatment." This article shows that the side effects of
the GED are either nonexistent or positive.
Israel, M.L., Blenkush, N.A., von
Heyn, R.E., and Rivera, P.M.,
"Treatment of Aggression with Behavioral Programming that
Includes Supplementary Skin-Shock," 2007. This paper shows
that treatment of aggression with the GED at JRC is "effective"
in 100 percent of the cases, whereas treatment of aggression
with positive-only procedures has proven effective in only 50%
of the cases. By "effective" we mean that the frequency at the
end of the baseline period was compared with the period at the
end of the treatment period.
Israel, M.L., Blenkush, N.A., von
Heyn, R.E., and Sands, C.C.,
"Seven Case Studies of Individuals Expelled from Positive-Only
Programs," 2007. This paper takes up seven cases of students
who were expelled from programs that use positive-only treatment
procedures, and who were then treated with the GED at JRC.
currently on the JRC website that contains documentary support for
the "Seven Case Studies..." paper.
Israel et al:
"Positive-Only Programs Expel Their Difficult-To-Treat Students,
Many of Whom are Then Referred to JRC for Successful Treatment,"
(2007). This paper reports on three additional students not
covered in the "Seven Case Studies..." paper, names the
positive-only programs that expel their difficult-to-treat
students, and gives documentary support for the assertions made
in the "Seven Case Studies..." paper.
Comments from Parents:
Filmed comments by parents
Letters from parents
Responses to Mother Jones
article. This is a response to a very critical magazine article that
appeared in the Mother Jones Magazine in August 2007.
New York Times 12/25/07 article on JRC parents' support of skin shock
Papers on the problems with Positive-Only
Carr et al,
"Positive Behavior Support for
People with Developmental Disabilities." This is a very
important, comprehensive review of 109 carefully selected, peer
reviewed papers published between 1985 and 1996 in which
positive-only (Positive Behavior Support) treatment procedures were
used. The author, Dr. Carr, is a leader in the Positive Behavior
Support movement. The paper shows that these procedures were
effective in only 50% of the cases.
Foxx paper on inability of positives to
treat severe behavior problems:
"Severe Aggressive and Self-Destructive Behavior: The Myth of the
Nonaversive Treatment of Severe Behaviors." In this paper Dr.
Richard Foxx shows that there is no evidence that positive-only
procedures can be used successfully to treat severe behavior
Mulick, J.A. and Butter, E.M.,
"Positive Behavior Support: A
Paternalistic Utopian Delusion," in Jacobson, J.W., Foxx, R.M.
and Mulick, J.A., Controversial Therapies for Developmental
Disabilities, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers, 2005. pp
385-404. This is a paper on the Positive Behavior Support movement
and its inadequacies.
Newsom, C. and Kroeger, K.A.,
Jacobson, J.W., Foxx, R.M. and Mulick, J.A., Controversial Therapies
for Developmental Disabilities, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates,
Publishers, 2005. pp 405-432. This is a balanced history of the
Bibliography of seven articles on SIBIS. The SIBIS device is a
device that was commercially available for several years (approximately
1990-1992) and which a number of researchers have used and published
papers on. JRC tried using SIBIS in the 1990-1991 period, but found that
it was insufficiently
Effectiveness of GED
Functional assessment at
JRC. This states our position on the use of functional
Miscellaneous Other Papers:
"Are Theories of
Johnson paper on replacement behaviors. This paper points out
that the notion that there is a process that allows for the
brick-for-brick replacement of one behavior with another is not an
accurate description of what happens when a behavior is decreased.
Replies to June 2006 NYSED Report
to NYSED Report: In 2006, NYSED issued a critical report of JRC.
This is JRC's response.
Massachusetts agencies find no support for the principal accusations
in the June 9, 2006 NYSED report.
paper. This is a position paper of the Association for
Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies that supports the use of
Conference on Destructive Behaviors. In 1989 the National
Institute of Health convened a national conference on the treatment
of destructive behaviors. The conference adopted a statement that
recognized that skin shock was one of a number of decelerative
procedures that had support in the professional literature.
paper. This is a statement of the Association for Behavior
Analysis that supports a parent's right to obtain effective
behavioral treatment. It supports the use of aversives when
of APA position paper. Division 33 (the retardation division)
also supported the use of aversives when necessary.
Autism Society of America. The Autism Society of America adopted
a policy that allows parents to select the option for their autistic
child that is best suited to his or her needs.
Positive Programming at
Behavioral education at JRC
Problems with Psychotropic Medication
Aversive Therapy with the GED Skin Shock over Drugs and Restraint
of Common Psychotropic Medications
"Are Meds to Blame for
Cho's Rampage," WorldNetDaily.com
Advantages of Skin Shock
Therapy in the Form of the Graduated Electronic Decelerator (GED)
Over Psychotropic Drugs and Restraint
"Psychiatrists, Children and Drug Industry's Role," NY Times